Volume 9, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 20-29
The Efficacy of the Bioecological Model of Human Development in Predicting Primary Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Ghana and Its Curriculum Implications
Nyatsikor Maxwell Kwesi, Faculty of Education, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana
Esia-Donkoh Kweku, Faculty of Educational Studies, University of Education, Winneba, Winneba, Ghana
Abroampa Winston Kwame, Faculty of Educational Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Received: May 7, 2020;       Accepted: May 26, 2020;       Published: Jun. 3, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijeedu.20200902.11      View  370      Downloads  118
The study examined the efficacy of the Bioecological Model of Human Development to predict Ghanaian primary school pupils’ academic achievement in a National Education Assessment test in English language and mathematics. A total of 19,458 primary 3 and 17,447 primary 6 pupils from 548 schools were involved in the study. Participating schools were selected using stratified random sampling. Using a hierarchical multiple regression with a significance criterion at p < 0.001, pupils’ academic achievement was found to be significantly influenced by their personal characteristics, as well as the micro and macro environments they interacted in. Consistent with the theoretical model, pupils’ microsystems contributed most to their levels of academic achievement. Moreover, the impact of pupils’ personal characteristics on their academic achievement was moderated by the types of micro and macro systems they operated in. The outcome of the study validates the model’s proposition that none of the variables operates in isolation but are mutually dependent in determining the levels of pupils’ academic achievement in a given context. It is therefore suggested curriculum developers and education policy formulators to be guided by the model in attempts to initiate interventions to address the problem of low academic achievement among primary school pupils’ in Ghana.
Bioecological Model, Academic Achievement, Curriculum
To cite this article
Nyatsikor Maxwell Kwesi, Esia-Donkoh Kweku, Abroampa Winston Kwame, The Efficacy of the Bioecological Model of Human Development in Predicting Primary Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Ghana and Its Curriculum Implications, International Journal of Elementary Education. Vol. 9, No. 2, 2020, pp. 20-29. doi: 10.11648/j.ijeedu.20200902.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bronfenbrenner, U., (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Creemers, B. P. M. & Kyriakides, L. (2012). Improving quality in education: Dynamic approaches to school improvement, London, UK: Routledge.
Kaya, Z, & Akdemir, S. (Eds). (2016). Learning and teaching theories, approaches and models (2nd ed). Çözüm Eğitim Yayıncılık. Ankara, Türkiye.
Zhou, M. & Brown, D. (2015). Educational Learning Theories (2nd ed). GALILEO Open Learning Materials.
Bates, B. (2019). Learning theories simplified. SAGE Publications Ltd. London.
Hattie, J., (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London/New York: Routledge.
Burroughs, N., Gardner, J., Lee, Y, Guo, S., Touitou, I., Jansen, K., et al. (2019). Teaching for Excellence and Equity Analyzing Teacher Characteristics, Behaviours and Student Outcomes with TIMSS. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16151-4_1
Hirsto, L. (2001). Children in their learning environments: theoretical perspectives. Unit of Educational Psychology Research Reports 5/2001. University of Helsinki.
Creemers, B. P. M, Kyriakides, L. and Sammons, P. (2010). Methodological advances in educational effectiveness research. Routledge.
Lewthwaite, B. (Ed) (2011). Manitoba Education Research Network (MERN) Monograph Series Issue 4, Spring 2011.
Johnson, E. S. (2008). Ecological Systems and Complexity Theory: Toward an Alternative Model of Accountability in Education. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education, 5 (1) pp. 1-10.
Crossley, M., (2014). Global league tables, big data and the international transfer of educational research modalities. Comparative Education, 50 (1), pp. 15-26, doi: 10.1080/03050068.2013.871438.
Lavy, V., (2012). Expanding school resources and increasing time on task: effects of a policy experiment in Israel on student academic achievement and behaviour. Working Paper. Coventry, UK: Department of Economics, University of Warwick. (CAGE Online Working Paper Series).
Barber, M. and Mourshed, M., (2007). How the world’s best-performing school systems come out on top. McKinsey and Company. London.
Meyer, H. & Benavot, A., (Eds) (2013). PISA, power, and policy: The emergence of global educational governance. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education. UK. Symposium books.
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, P. A., (1998). The ecology of development processes. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (pp. 993–1027). New York, NY: Wiley.
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, P. A., (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 793–828). New York, NY: Wiley.
Bronfenbrenner, U. and Evans, G. W., (2000). Developmental science in the 21st century: Emerging theoretical models, research designs, and empirical findings. Social Development, 9, pp. 115-125.
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Crouter, A. C., (1983). The evolution of environmental models in developmental research. In Paul H. Mussen Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (4th ed.) pp. 357–414. Toronto, ON: John Wiley & Sons.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (2001). The bioecological theory of human development. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopaedia of the social and behavioural sciences, pp. 6963–6970. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Tudge, J. R. H., Mokrova, I. L., Hatfield, B. E., and Karnik, R. B. (2009). Uses and misuses of Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory of human development. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 1, pp. 198–210.
UNESCO, (2019a). Meeting Commitments Are Countries on Track to Achieve SDG 4? UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M. G., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Mesman, J. (2016). Gender Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls. PLoSONE11 (7): e0159193. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159193
Reilly, D., Neumann, D. L., & Andrews, G. (2019). Gender Differences in Reading and Writing Achievement: Evidence from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). American Psychologist, 74, (4), pp 445–458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000356
Mujtaba, T., and Reiss, M. J., (2012). What sort of girl wants to study physics after the age of 16? Findings from a large-scale UK survey. International Journal of Science Education, pp. 1-20, iFirst Article.
UNESCO. 2019b. Global Education Monitoring Report – Gender Report: Building bridges for gender equality. Paris, UNESCO.
Martin, M. O., Mullis, I. V. S., & Foy, P. (2012). PIRLS 2011 International Report: IEA's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study in Primary School. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College. http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/isc/publications.html
Marc Jackman, W., Morrain-Webb, J. & Fuller, C. (Reviewing editor) (2019). Exploring gender differences in achievement through student voice: Critical insights and analyses, Cogent Education, 6: 1, 1567895
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (2018). Gender Gap in Educational Outcomes in Norway. Education Working Paper No. 183.
Evans, D. K., Akmal, M., Jakiela, P. (2019). Gender Gaps in Education: The Long View. CGD Working Paper 523. Center for Global Development. https://www.cgdev.org/publication/gender-gaps-education-long-view
Kemp, P. E. J & Berry, M. G. (2019). Female Performance and Participation in Computer Science: A National Picture. ACM Trans. Comput. Educ. 20, 1,(4), 28 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3366016
Royal Society (2017). After the reboot: Computing education in UK schools. The Royal Society, London
Vitores, A. & Gil-Juárez, A. (2016). The trouble with “women in computing”: A critical examination of the deployment of research on the gender gap in computer science. Journal of Gender Studies 25, 6 (2016), 666–680. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2015.1087309
Wong, B. & Kemp, P. E. J. (2018). Technical boys and creative girls: The career aspirations of digitally skilled youths. Cambridge Journal of Education 48, (3), pp. 301–316.
UNESCO, (2017). Cracking the code: Girls’ and women’s education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)
Ceci, S. J., and W. M. Williams. 2011. “Understanding Current Causes of Women's Underrepresentation in Science.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (8): 3157–3162. http://www.pnas.org/content/108/8/3157.full10.1073/pnas.1014871108 [Google Scholar]
Piaget, J., (1970). Science of education and the psychology of the child. New York: Orion Press.
Vygotsky, L., (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Upton, P. & Taylor, C. E., (2014). Educational psychology. Pearson Education Ltd. UK.
Francis, B., Luk-Fog, P. Y. and Skelton, C., (2012). Gender and achievement in the UK and Hong Kong. In C. Forlin (Ed), Future Directions for Inclusive Teacher Education: An international perspective (pp. 131-140). Abingdon: Taylor and Francis.
Hungi, N., Makuwa, D., Ross, K., Saito, M., Dolata, S., Van Cappelle, F. and Vellien, J., (2010b). SACMEQ III Project Result: Pupil achievement levels in reading and mathematics. Working Document Number 1 SACMEQ.
Hungi, N., (2011b). Characteristics of grade 6 pupils, their homes and learning Environments. SACMEQ working paper 1. Available: http://www.sacmeq.org/sites/default/files/sacmeq/publications/01_pupils_final_24nov 2011. pdf. Date Accessed: 05/04/20.
Bashir, S., Lockheed, M., Ninan, E. & Tan, J-P (2018). Facing Forward Schooling for Learning in Africa. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.
Saarinen, P., Ruoppila, I. & Korkiakangas, M. (1994). Kasvatuspsykologian kysymyksiä. Helsingin yliopisto: Lahden koulutus- ja tutkimuskeskus. [Problems in Educational Psychology. University of Helsinki: Lahti’s Centrum of Education and Research]
Bronfenbrenner, U. (2000). Ecological systems theory. In A. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Psychology, (Vol. 3,) pp. 129-133. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Christensen, J. (2010). Proposed Enhancement of Bronfenbrenner’s Development Ecology Model. Education Inquiry, 1 (2), pp. 101–110.
Ghana National Educational Assessment Technical Report (2013). (May 2014). Ministry of Education. Accra.
Ghana National Educational Assessment Technical Report (2016). Ministry of Education. Accra.
Chiu, M. M., & Chow, B. W-Y. (2015). International Comparisons of Student Achievement. In: Roberta V. Nata (Ed) Progress in Education. 32. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Ministry of Education (2015). Inclusive education policy in Ghana. Accra: MoE.
National Teacher Education Curriculum Framework. (2017). MoE. Accra: Ghana.
United Nations, (2015). Helping governments and stakeholders make sustainable development goals a reality. United Nations. New York.
Dalley-Trim, L., (2007). The boys’ present…hegemonic masculinity: a performance of multiple acts. Gender and education, 19 (2). pp. 199-217. Allen and Unwin.
Tooley, J., & Longfield, D., (2014). The Role and Impact of Private Schools in Developing Countries: A Response to DFID’s “Rigorous Literature Review”. E. G. West Centre, Newcastle University. UK.
Day Ashley, L., C. Mcloughlin, M. Aslam, J. Engel, J. Wales, S. Rawal, R. Batley, G. Kingdon, S. Nicolai, &P. Rose. (2014). The Role and Impact of Private Schools in Developing Countries: A Rigorous Review of the Evidence.” EPPI-Centre Report No. 2206, Education Rigorous Literature Review commissioned by the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID), London.
UNESCO, (2018). Learning at the bottom of the pyramid: Science, measurement, and policy in low income countries. International Institute for Educational Planning. UNESCO.
Browse journals by subject